Technology For Smart School

The latest technology of RFID is one such bliss that helps institutions in a great way by minimizing a lot of labor in keeping track of attendance.

Challenges That Schools Face In Managing Attendance

Tiresome manual job: The schools and colleges usually have clerks doing extremely tiring manual labor of managing attendance of students and staff. This just means wasting tons of paper and even time, as the professors and lecturers might log in and log out at different times. This would ultimately take the entire day and along with that, maintaining a register of students across grades would be tiresome.

Human error: It is always there as a big challenge, which one might face while entering the time or marking students’ presence or absence. In fact, just a minor discrepancy or error in marking a student absent might reduce his attendance percentage by a great margin.

New academic session challenges: When a school reopens after holidays, usually new admission adds on. This calls for a newer register and more of repetition and bringing all the students to sign in again or logging into this system.

Keeping all of these issues, RFID school attendance system is a new-age solution for bringing in timeliness among the students as they log in.

In these days of increased security threats, one cannot simply ignore the fact that every new visitor to the school premises would require careful scrutiny. However, just having security personnel for that purpose might not do. This is where the RFID school attendance system and access control systems are useful.

How Is the RFID Attendance System Superior?

This system would not just be a tableau of meaningless time entries or log in and log out data alone. The access control and attendance systems would further use this data to convert it into analytical data. A student’s entry pattern and leave details or logging out early would be visible to the school authorities to bring the student back to the rulebook.

A great benefit of this system is that it can work independently, and remote access is enough for the school authorities to keep an eye on the entry system. They can set the time deadline for the last students to troop in the post, which they would not be allowed to come in with a warning.

Such automated systems are the need of the hour, when one can use everything to bring in regulations, discipline among the school students and even use technology to ease the administration process.

All About APK Files Android

APK stands for Android package kit. This is a file format that is used by the operating system in Android for the installation and the distribution of middleware and mobile apps. The files are actually analogous to the other packages like APPX for Microsoft Windows or the Debn kind of packages within debian based kind of OS such as Ubuntu.

So as to come up with the APK file, one needs an Android program for Android to be compiled and then all parts packaged into a single file that contains the code of the program. This can be files like .dex files. The APK file also has to have the manifest, certificates, assets and resources files. Just like any kinds of file formats that you may know of, the APK files are allowed to have any kind of name that is needed. The only thing that has to remain constant is the end which should be .apk.

They are a kind of archive file and found in the zip format packages that are based on JAR format .apk is the filename extension.


One can install the files in the devices that are Android powered just the way we install software on the PC. When one downloads and then installs an application on Android from official sites or other unofficial sites, they are actually installing APK ion the device.

It is possible for a person to install APK files directly in devices. This can be done without necessarily downloading them from any network. You can use a desktop computer and use different communication programs.

You can also use a process that is referred to as side loading. Usually, this ability to install from sites that aren’t official or from the file manager or direct from a desktop comes disabled because of different security reasons in many of the Android devices that we have. You can enable this by simply changing the unknown sources settings within the menu.

Why install an APK file

Usually, APK files get leaked before time and this allows you to have an easy access to many new features that would not have been availed to you. There are also some apps that certain regions can actually restrict. Having the APK files allows one to be able to bypass the various carriers so as to have the very latest updates on Google. This can take a lot of time to arrive on the network. In the Android device you are using doesn’t have access to the play site, then installing the apps may require having the APK files and it may be the only option that you have.

When using this method, you need to be careful not to end up with apps that aren’t legally acquired. There are services that may allow the download of apps that are pirated. Do your research so as to avoid breaking laws. Find a downloader that is well known for its efficiency.

Always ensure that you use a site that you can really trust since there are APK files that can have some malicious software.

It is important to choose a Google play apk downloader carefully so as to ensure the safety of your system and gadget as well. You don’t want to end up with a virus in your Android OS. Reviews and user comments can help. An online apk download should always be done safely.

All About BGA Rework

BGA Rework Reflow

One of the most critical processes for BGA rework is the process of reflow. The reflow process occurs after the previous device has been removed and the site prepped. The replacement device is replaced using either flux or paste attachment. The reflow process in BGA rework should emulate the manufacturing process as closely as possible. Given the thermal mass of the board in and around the BGA the profile should match that of the replacement solder balls (if the device has been reballed and will be used a the replacement device) or match as closely as possible the profile of the device vendor’s data sheet of the solder paste printed.

There are several “rules of thumb” when zeroing in the process of reflow profile. It is good to learn about the thermal characteristics of the PCB when trying to dial in a reflow process profile. One of the best ways to “learn” about the thermal characteristics of the PCB when there is only one PCB and there is not a profiling board available, is to use what is learned during the removal process to help “dial in” a reflow process. Many times a BGA rework technician will use a standard profile in order to remove the device, tweaking or adjusting the profile based on the results achieved. If there is the availability of a solder sample which allows the BGA technician to embed thermocouples into the solder balls (a corner, and 1 or 2 other places depending on the size of the package), into the die, around the BGA, near other components etc. all in conjunction with learning about the thermal characteristics of the device and board during the reflow process. The proper method for embedding these thermocouples is high-temperature epoxy for their attachment to the device or internal to the PCB. Another “rule of thumb” for the reflow profile is making sure that for lead-free profiles the solder joint, as seen by the temperature in both corner and other balls, is above liquidus for a period of 60-90 seconds. Tin-lead solder should be above liquidus for a period of 30-45 seconds.

Not only should the profile be correct and be confirmed through temperature measurements but the components in and around the BGA being reflowed need to be protected. This is especially tried when using a hot air source and for the device which is heat-sensitive including but not limited to ceramic capacitors, plastic connectors, batteries, and MELFs. In addition devices with underfill or components with TRV or glue around them should be watched and protected as these materials will become soft and potentially run all of the board making a large mess. Protection from the heat sources, especially when using a hot air reflow source comes in many different flavors. One of the most common-used but least-effective types of protection used is the Kapton™ tape found in many areas of the SMT process. This has been shown in several studies on this topic to be LEASE effective type of heat shielding material. Other more effective sources include a water-soluble gel or a ceramic-based nonwoven material. Whatever the type of heat shielding material used to protect neighboring devices during reflow, their use is important to protecting devices from excessive heat which damage the devices.

In order to run a complete profile, the PCB should be adequately supported. This is especially true of there are “imbalanced” copper section of the board or in cases where very thin.032″ thick boards are being reflowed. Without adequate board support, there may be board warping which may damage inner layers or cause the board to be badly deformed making placement of components difficult or have a reliability problem with respect to the solder joints. There are a variety of board support systems on the market with most higher end rework systems offering a flexible board mounting and support system design.

Not only is adequate board support required but proper bottom side heating of the boards will help ensure minimal differences in temperature across the board and a lesser propensity for board warpage. Modern BGA rework systems are equipped with sophisticated bottom side heaters. Advancements for making sure the process of reflow is optimized include multizone bottom side heaters. These heaters allow the user to have the rework area at a higher temperature than the remainder of the PCB thereby reducing the likelihood of board warpage during the process of reflow.

A typical lead-free, hot air source thermal profile is seen below. First, the bottom side heating begins to warm up the board with one temperature (typically 160 or 170C) being in the rework location and another, typically 150 C, being at other areas of the board. During the time this temperature is applied to the bottom side of the board the nozzle temperature begins to climb during the “ramp” period of the reflow profile. Too fast a ramp may damage neighboring components or the laminate. Then a “soak” phase, which lowers the ramp rate and starts to activate the flux, begins. After this phase, the liquidus temperature, somewhere between 205-220C is reached. This begins the reflow zone. In this, the maximum temperature is reached and the rework location “sees” a temperature which is above the liquidus temperature for a minimum of 60 and as long as 90 seconds. The reflow profile ends with a cool down zone. The cool down zone cannot be so extreme so as to cool the board where the negative temperature gradient may cause brittleness in the solder joint at the end of the process of reflow.

How To Choose IT Company

When the right questions are asked as you select the best IT support company, you will have greater ease during the whole process. It is essential that you cover all the areas that may worry you so as to ensure that services are professionally and timely delivered. There are some points that are worth some considerations before an IT support company is appointed and they include:


This is a very easy method, especially when you know of someone who has used services from the company in the past and had a great experience. A testimonial may not be able to guarantee that the services that you receive will be similar to those of the past. However, it is much better to use this path as opposed to choosing a company randomly.

The physical address of the company

A company with a good reputation always has a physical address where their main business is operating in. It is important to exercise caution and don’t trust anyone working from home. When you know a physical address, you will breathe easy as you know they will still be around even after the job is completed. When a business gets a fixed and professional premises, it shows just how committed the company is and that’s why they take some time to invest in their infrastructure that can have senior staff as well as technical support.

Web site

You need to take your time to go through the IT services website so as to get a feel of how professional they really are. This is the place where you will find all the services that they offer as well as their contact details in case you need it. Customer feedback and testimonials is something that you should look at too.

Pricing is just one of the factors worth considering

It is a good thing if you do find a great bargain deal. However, it is important to note that you always get that which you pay for and this is very true where IT companies are concerned. Smaller companies that are home based may be able to offer low prices but are you sure that the services will be worth it? You should look at what your company would lose from not getting the important services against what the IT Company is offering at a price for services. Usually, bigger companies with more staff working under them charge much more as compared to the small companies.

Number of senior staff

Support is very important for any company. For an IT company, there are lots of technicalities that need to be handled. When there are lots of people working for the company, you can have the same guy assigned to handle your issues all the time and this comes with lots of advantages. The technician will be able to understand the network as well as the software setup and so noting exactly where the problem lies after he fixes the first time becomes very easy. This means you get faster services than would have been possible if you are assigned a new person every time.

The world has become highly computerized and this is why we need IT support from time to time to handle some of the technicalities that require an expert’s hand. Look at the services you require and match them up with what a company has to offer and you will be on your way to achieving great heights.